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Exploring the expression of depression and distress in aboriginal men in central Australia: a qualitative study

Despite being at heightened risk of developing mental illness, there has been little research into the
experience of depression in Australian Aboriginal populations. This study aimed to outline the expression,
experience, manifestations and consequences of emotional distress and depression in Aboriginal men in central Australia.

Methods
Utilizing a grounded theory approach, in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22
theoretically sampled young, middle aged and senior Aboriginal men and traditional healers. Analysis was
conducted by a single investigator using constant comparison methods.

Results
Depressive symptoms were common and identifiable, and largely consistent with symptom profiles seen
in non-Aboriginal groups. For Aboriginal men, depression was expressed and understood as primarily related to weakness or injury of the spirit, with a lack of reference to hopelessness and specific somatic complaints. The primary contributors to depression related to the loss of connection to social and cultural features of Aboriginal life, cumulative stress and marginalisation.

Conclusions
Depression and depressive symptomatology clearly exists in Aboriginal men, however its determinants and expression differ from mainstream populations. Emotions were understood within the construction of spirit, Kurunpa , which was vulnerable to repetitive and powerful negative social forces, loss, and stress across the life course, and served to frame the physical and emotional experience and expression of depression.

Brown A, Scales U, Beever W, Rickards B, Rowley K, O’Dea K. BMC Psychiatry 2012 Aug 1;12:97.

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